Wednesday, 13 July 2011


Motocross evolved in the UK out of trials, such as the Auto-Cycle Clubs's first quarterly trial in 1906 and the Scottish Six Days Trial that began in 1909.[1] When delicate balancing and strict scoring of trials were dispensed with in favor of a flat out race to be the fastest rider to the finish, it was called scrambles, said to have originated in the phrase, "a rare old scramble" describing one such early race.[1] When scrambles spread to the European continent, the French word for motorcycle, motocyclette, or moto for short, was combined in a portmanteau with "cross country", and the name motocross stuck.[1] The first known scramble took place at Camberley, Surrey in 1924.[2] During the 1930s, the sport grew in popularity, especially in Britain where teams from the Birmingham Small Arms Company (BSA), Norton, Matchless, Rudge, and AJS competed in the events. Off-road bikes from that era differed little from those used on the street. The intense competition over rugged terrain led to technical improvements in motorcycles. Rigid frames gave way to suspensions by the early 1930s, and swinging fork rear suspension appeared by the early 1950s, several years before it was incorporated on the majority of production street bikes.[3] The period after the Second World War was dominated by BSA which had become the largest motorcycle company in the world.[3] BSA riders dominated international competitions throughout the 1940s.[3]
A Maico 360 cc with air-cooled engine and twin shock absorbers on the rear suspension
In 1952 the FIM, motorcycling's international governing body, created an individual European Championship using a 500 cc engine displacement formula. In 1957, it was upgraded it to World Championship status.[3] In 1962, a 250 cc world championship was created.[3] It was in the smaller 250 cc category that companies with two-stroke motorcycles came into their own. Companies such as Husqvarna from Sweden, CZ from the former Czechoslovakia and Greeves from England, became popular due to their lightness and agility.[3] By the 1960s, advancements in two-stroke engine technology meant that the heavier, four-stroke machines were relegated to niche competitions. Riders from Belgium and Sweden began to dominate the sport during this period.[citation needed]
Motocross sometimes takes place in wet weather, leading to muddy scenes such as this and hence the term "Scrambling". Photo from New Zealand.
Motocross was introduced to the United States in 1966 when Swedish champion, Torsten Hallman rode an exhibition event against the top American TT riders at the Corriganville Movie Ranch also known as Hopetown in Simi Valley, California. The following year Hallman was joined by other motocross stars including Roger DeCoster, Joël Robert, and Dave Bickers. They dominated the event placing their light weight two-strokes into the top six finishing positions.[4][5]
By the late 1960s, Japanese motorcycle companies began challenging the European factories for supremacy in the motocross world. Suzuki claimed the first world championship for a Japanese factory when Joël Robert won the 1970 250 cc crown.[6] Motocross also began to grow in popularity in the United States during this period, which fueled an explosive growth in the sport. The first stadium motocross event was held in 1972 at the Los Angeles Coliseum.[7] In 1975, a 125 cc world championship was introduced.[8] European riders continued to dominate motocross throughout the 1970s but, by the 1980s, American riders had caught up and began winning international competitions.[9]
During the early 1980s, Japanese factories presided over a technology boom in motocross. The typical two-stroke air-cooled, twin-shock rear suspension machines gave way to machines that were water-cooled and fitted with single-shock absorber rear suspension. By the 1990s, increasingly stringent environmental laws in California forced manufacturers to develop environmentally friendly four-stroke technology.[10][11] At the turn of the century, all the major manufacturers have begun competing with four-stroke machines. European firms also experienced a resurgence with Husqvarna, Husaberg and KTM winning world championships with four-stroke machinery.
The sport evolved with sub-disciplines such as stadium events known as supercross and arenacross held in indoor arenas. Freestyle motocross (FMX) events where riders are judged on their jumping and aerial acrobatic skills have gained popularity, as well as supermoto, where motocross machines race on both tarmac and off road. Vintage motocross events have also become popular with riders competing on bikes usually pre-dating the 1975 model year.[citation needed]

100 meter

The 100 metres, or 100-metre dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and prestigious events in the sport of athletics. It has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 (1928 for women). The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is often named "the fastest man/woman in the world".
On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, with the start being set on an extension to make it a straight-line race. Runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starter's pistol. Sprinters typically reach top speed after somewhere between 50–60 m. Their speed then slows progressively towards the finish line.
The 10-second barrier has historically been a barometer of fast men's performances, while the best female sprinters take eleven seconds or less to complete the race. The current men's world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaica's Usain Bolt, while American Florence Griffith-Joyner holds the women's world record of 10.49 seconds.
The 100 m emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards (91.4 m), a now defunct distance originally contested in English-speaking countries. The event is largely held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight.

Table Tennis

Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight, hollow ball back and forth using table tennis rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net. Except for the initial serve, players must allow a ball played toward them only one bounce on their side of the table and must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side. Points are scored when a player fails to return the ball within the rules. Play is fast and demands quick reactions. A skilled player can impart several varieties of spin to the ball, altering its trajectory and limiting an opponent's options to great advantage.
Table tennis is controlled by the worldwide organization International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), founded in 1926. ITTF currently includes 215 member associations.[1] The table tennis official rules are specified in the ITTF handbook.[2] Since 1988, table tennis has been an Olympic sport,[3] with several event categories. In particular, from 1988 until 2004, these were: men's singles, women's singles, men's doubles and women's doubles. Since 2008 the doubles have been replaced by the team events.
File:Competitive table tennis.jpg

Tuesday, 12 July 2011

sepak takraw sukan rakyat

Sepak takraw atau sepaktakraw merupakan sejenis permainan di antara dua pasukan atau regu yang dianggotai oleh tiga orang pemain bagi setiap regu. Mempunyai jaring yang memisahkan di antara kedua-dua regu dan dimainkan di gelanggang yang berukuran sama seperti gelanggang badminton. Bola takraw pula pada asalnya diperbuat daripada rotan dan kini telah digantikan dengan penggunaan bola sintetik.
Sepak raga pula merupakan permainan menimang bola takraw dalam bulatan dengan menggunakan kaki atau kepala dan telah dimainkan semenjak Zaman Kesultanan Melayu Melaka lagi. Dalam Sejarah Melayu ada menceritakan tentang Raja Muhammad, putera Sultan Mansor Shah Muhammad tertanggal tanjaknya akibat terkena bola raga tendangan Tun Besar.
Di Malaysia permainan ini disebut 'sepak raga', di Filipina 'sipa', di Burma 'chinlone', di Laos 'kator', dan di Thailand 'takraw'. Permainan sepaktakraw yang ada sekarang merupakan adaptasi permainan sepak raga dan badminton. Pada tahun 1940an permainan ini telah dimainkan dengan menggunakan jaring dan mengikut sistem kiraan mata seperti badminton. Undang-undang dan peraturan awal permainan sepak raga jaring telahpun digubal dan disusun secara bertulis pada 15 April 1960 di Kuala Lumpur.
Sepaktakraw mula dipertandingkan buat pertama kalinya di peringkat antarabangsa pada tahun 1965 di Sukan SEAP yang telah diadakan di Malaysia. Sebelum Jawatankuasa Pengelola Sukan SEAP menerima sukan ini, perbincangan yang hangat telah berlaku di antara wakil-wakil Malaysia dan Singapura dengan wakil-wakil dari Negara Thai dan Burma bagi membincangkan mengenai dengan nama permainan ini. Akhirnya atas dasar bertolak ansur, Jawatankuasa Pengelola Sukan SEAP telah memutuskan bahawa permainan ini hendaklah dinamakan permainan SEPAKTAKRAW, iaitu gabungan perkataan 'sepak' dan 'takraw' menjadi satu perkataan.
Dan kini permainan sepaktakraw telahpun mengalami evolusi dimana permainan bergu yang dimainkan oleh dua orang pemain bagi setiap pasukan telahpun diperkenalkan.